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World Contraception Day: Different Methods Of Preventing Pregnancy

By: Nnenna Joseph
The world is changing, families are starting to realise the need to keep the number of children they have within their income bracket.
HowUKnow - World Contraception Day
In this regard, families have been looking for the best practices to sustain intimacy while limiting the number of children they want to have.
Below are different methods of preventing pregnancy including their pros and cons as coined from a medical doctor, Dr. Chinonso Egbema.
1. The Male Condom: A sheath usually made of latex that covers the penis and blocks sperm from reaching the vagina. It is 95% effective? But in actual use about 85% Side effects: some people have a latex allergy

2. Female condoms: Cheap also, but availability is not as common as the male condom, it is put into the vagina and blocks sperm from reaching the uterus.

Side effects: allergies to latex: About 79% Effective  Many people do not know how to use it properly, some haven’t seen it

3. Cervical cap: A cap-like device that covers the cervix, can also be filled with spermicides(substances that kill sperms. The issue is that it has to be in for some hours after sex and some people can develop very serious reactions to the spermicide. 80% effective.

4. Implants: As big as a matchstick, it is implanted under the skin, usually in the upper arm It affects the cervical mucus and affects ovulation. Can last for 5 years
99% effective. Some side effects: weight gain, breasts tenderness, acne, irregular periods

Read Also: Experts Reveal When Men Stop Production Of Sperm


5. Copper IUD: This is placed inside the womb, It prevents the fertilized egg from joining the womb. Can be used for up to 10 years How effective? 99%

Some side effects: cramps, spotting, sometimes can go missing in the womb

6. Hormonal IUD: Same as above, the only difference is this one has a hormone that also blocks ovulation and makes cervical mucus thick. 99+% effective  Side effects; same as above plus irregular periods

Contraception – Page 2 – Global Reproductive Health at Duke

7. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills You take this one every day, and it also helps to block the cervix by increasing the mucus production and blocking ovulation It can also reduce the menstrual symptoms How effective: 91% It can reduce your risk of ovarian cancer

8. Hormonal injection; Injected into the muscle and released slowly. Used every 3 months, works like the implant.

How effective: 98%

There are options like the Sayana Press that can be self Injected.  Some side effects: irregular periods, nausea, breast tenderness etc

9. Emergency Pills:These are the ones commonly know as Back Up, Postinor WORKS for up to 72 hours after unprotected sex Effectiveness drops as time passes, can be as high as 98% in the first 24 hours Not to be taken often, if you are using it often, use a more regular method


10. Bilateral tubal ligation and hysterectomy. They remove the womb or tie the tubes that bring the egg to the womb How effective: 99+% Side effects: ectopic pregnancy for some people. Mood changes, depression, etc

11. Vasectomy: The tubes that bring sperm into the penis is cut Meaning no sperms… How effective: 99+% Side effects; you can only start having unprotected sex after three months after they have verified that there is no sperm in your ejaculate

12. Natural methods: The couple keeps track of the fertile days of the woman, and avoid sex on those days and about 5 days leading to those days She can also measure her basal body temperature method as well as the thickness of the cervical mucus Can be difficult to use correctly


13. Withdrawal: Here the man removes his penis just before ejaculation: This method can be quite unreliable as it has a failure rate of as high as 27% Some men have been shown to have sperm cells in their pre ejaculate, or precum as some call it

Please bear in mind that this list is not exhaustive. Always consult a doctor before use, what may work for you, might not work for another.

Today is #WorldContraceptionDay and until you’re ready to have kids, it’s in your best interest to use contraceptives. Unplanned pregnancies can alter the course of your life. Be ready, don’t be caught unawares. There is nothing to be ashamed of, whether you are married or single, so long as you are sexually active, it is better to use contraceptives.



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