Nigeria’s Fintech Sector Grapples with Fraud: Challenges and Solutions

by Ikem Emmanuel

Nigeria’s fintech sector is undoubtedly on the rise, transforming the country’s financial landscape. However, this success story comes with its own set of challenges, most notably the escalating issue of fraud. What sets this problem apart is the complexity it adds when trying to resolve cases, often necessitating the involvement of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN).

In a typical fraud case involving money transfers between commercial banks, these banks can often work together to resolve the issue, with minimal need for CBN intervention. However, when fintech companies become part of the equation, things can get more complicated.

Consider a scenario where a fraudster employs a fintech platform to transfer money from one commercial bank to another. In such cases, the affected commercial bank must reach out to the fintech company. Unfortunately, fintech companies may not always respond promptly or even cooperate, giving fraudsters the upper hand and making it increasingly challenging to recover stolen funds.

The majority of fintech-related fraud cases go unreported, but some high-profile incidents have garnered attention, including fraud cases involving Access Bank, Fidelity Bank, Shago, Flutterwave, and FCMB. In many instances, cybercriminals gained unauthorized access to bank systems with the assistance of insiders. Subsequently, they exploited interbank services to facilitate the movement of illicit funds.

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Some experts point out that certain fintech companies, driven by aggressive shareholder expectations, may prioritize profits over essential security measures. This focus on profitability can inadvertently expose these platforms to fraudulent activities.


Another significant contributor to the problem is the concept of the “mule.” In the realm of financial fraud, a mule is an individual employed to cash out stolen funds or funnel them through legitimate financial channels, concealing the source and intent of the money.

Addressing this issue is not just the responsibility of regulators; it involves a collective effort from commercial banks and fintech companies. They need to implement robust security measures and foster cooperation to investigate and resolve fraud cases.

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